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   Your location > Near Ambient Pressure Analysis

Surface Analysis under Near Ambient Pressure Conditions

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the surface chemical composition of materials. XP spectra are obtained by illuminating the sample surface with monochromatic X-rays and eventually measuring the number of photoemitted electrons as a function of their kinetic energies. The result is the quantitative elemental composition of the surface and the chemical state identification of the detected elements both with an information depth of < 10 nm using standard soft-X-ray excitation sources. The use of hard–X-rays (photon energies >3 keV) allows to increase the information depth to several tens of nm. As an extension Near-Ambient-Pressure XPS (NAP-XPS) systems do not require ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the analysis area. This enhances the fields of applications significantly. Investigations of a large variety of different samples, including insulating samples, gases, liquids and their interfaces that are not accessible with standard XPS systems, are now easily possible. This also allows for operando analysis of materials and devices, being the key to applications like catalysis, electrochemistry, surface chemistry and biological samples.
 

Strength of NAP-XPS

  • Chemical state determination of elements at surfaces
  • Sensitive to all elements except for H and He
  • Huge variety of accessible sample systems including insulating samples, powders, liquids, and gases
  • Investigation at elevated pressures under well controlled conditions (temperature, pressure, type of gas/liquid)
  • Operando or in-situ studies of real devices
  • Depth profiling

Key Applications

  • Operando studies of electrochemical devices,
  • In-situ investigations of biological materials
  • Non destructive analysis of pharmaceuticals
  • Surface studies in contact with gaseous or liquid environments
  • Testing of materials corrosion and coatings for corrosion protection
  • Full characterization of catalysis: educts, changes in catalysts, products
  • Analysis of materials containing liquids, like aerogels, tissue, biofilms
  • Characterization of fundamental processes at gas/liquid/solid surface and interfaces

 
 
 
 Method Applications Components for NAP Spectroscopy
   
     
Instrumentation for NAP Microscopy and Structural Studies Systems for NAP Spectroscopy and Scanning Probe Microscopy  Accesories
 

 




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