|New dimension in XPS|
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful technique to investigate the chemical composition and the electronic structure of a large variety of materials, ranging from metals, semiconductors, insulators and superconductors to carbon-based materials, such as organic semiconductors. The information depth of XPS is determined by the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of the photoexcited electrons in solid matter. The figure below shows a qualitative plot of the IMFP as a function of the kinetic energy. There is a distinct minimum in the IMFP in the energy range between 40 eV and 100 eV.
|Inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons as a function of the kinetic energy. The figure shows a typical plot for IMFPs in inorganic solids |
|To gain access to bulk and interface properties, the kinetic energy of electrons has to be increased by using higher photon energies for excitation. In hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) photon energies typically range between 6 keV and 15 keV, which extends the information|
depth to 100–200 Å.
Excellent Performance and Reliability
The PHOIBOS series of hemispherical analyzers combines excellent performance and highest reliability for the widest possible variety of experimental conditions. The analyzers share the same electron-optical design but scale in size with hemispheres of 100 mm, 150 mm, and 225 mm radius. Here, the larger hemisphere radius results in a larger resolving power. All analyzers feature a double magnetic shielding to reduce magnetic field to very low levels.
PHOIBOS 225 HV
The PHOIBOS 225 HV is the state-of-the-art hemispherical analyzer with a mean radius of 225 mm. This instrument can handle energies up to 15 keV via its AVC 15000 power supply. The entrance slits range from 0.09 × 30 mm2 to 7 × 30 mm2.
PHOIBOS 150 HV
The PHOIBOS 150 HV has a mean radius of 150 mm and a working distance of 40 mm. The entrance slits have a length of 20 mm. The HSA 7000 plus power supply enables operation up to 7 keV.